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Cannabinoid receptor 1 signaling in cardiovascular regulating nuclei in the brainstem: A review

Cannabinoids elicit complex hemodynamic responses in experimental animals that involve both peripheral and central sites. Centrally administered cannabinoids have been shown to predominantly cause pressor response. However, very little is known about the mechanism of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R)-centrally evoked pressor response. In this review, we provided an overview of the contemporary knowledge regarding the cannabinoids centrally elicited cardiovascular responses and the possible underlying signaling mechanisms. The current review focuses on the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) as the primary brainstem nucleus implicated in CB1R-evoked pressor response.


Behavior of concentrically loaded CFT braces connections

Concrete filled tubes (CFTs) composite columns have many economical and esthetic advantages, but the behavior of their connections is complicated. Through this study, it is aimed to investigate the performance and behavior of different connection configurations between concrete filled steel tube columns and bracing diagonals through an experimental program. The study included 12 connection subassemblies consisting of a fixed length steel tube and gusset plate connected to the tube end with different details tested under half cyclic loading. A notable effect was observed on the behavior of the connections due to its detailing changes with respect to capacity, failure mode, ductility, and stress distribution.


Analgesic effect of intra-articular magnesium sulphate compared with bupivacaine after knee arthroscopic menisectomy

This work aimed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of intra-articular injection of magnesium sulphate (4%) compared with equivalent volume of bupivacaine (0.5%) after outpatient knee arthroscopic meniscectomy. Forty patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Group M (n = 20) received intra-articular magnesium sulphate 4%, group B (n = 20) received bupivacaine (0.5%). Analgesic effect was evaluated by analgesic duration, and by measuring pain intensity at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 h both at rest and on knee movement to 90. The primary outcome variable was pain intensity on the VAS at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 h post arthroscopy at rest and on movement (flexion of knee to 90), although the magnesium group had lower time weighted averages (TWAs) at rest and on movement, these TWAs were not statistically significant. The median duration of postoperative analgesia was significantly longer in the patients treated with magnesium sulphate (528 min) than in the bupivacaine group (317 min) (p


Climate change and epidemiology of human parasitosis in Egypt: A review

Climate change is an emerging global issue. It is expected to have significant impacts both in Egypt and around the world. Thus, the country is in need for taking action to prepare for the unavoidable effects of climate change, including the increase in water stress, the rise in sea level, and the rapidly increasing gap between the limited water availability and the escalating demand for water in the country. Also, weather and climate play a significant role in people’s health. Direct impacts of climate change on the Egyptians public health may include also increased prevalence of human parasitic diseases. Climate could strongly influence parasitic diseases transmitted through intermediate hosts. The present work reviews the future of such parasitic diseases in the view of the current available evidence and scenarios for climate change in the Egypt.


Development of a low grade lymphoma in the mastoid bone in a patient with atypical Cogan’s syndrome: A case report

Cogan’s syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by ocular and audiovestibular manifestations in its typical form and caries a wide variety of atypical manifestations. It is considered as an autoimmune disease. We present the first case in the literature of a 67 year old woman with the development of low grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in the mastoid bone in a preexisting history of atypical Cogan’s syndrome. The anatomical development of NHL was to a ‘‘target’’ organ of Cogan’s syndrome, which is the inner ear.


New era for management of chronic hepatitis C virus using direct antiviral agents: A review

The pegylated interferon regimen has long been the lone effective management of chronic hepatitis C with modest response. The first appearance of protease inhibitors included boceprevir and telaprevir. However, their efficacy was limited to genotype 1. Recently, direct antiviral agents opened the gate for a real effective management of HCV, certainly after FDA approval of some compounds that further paved the way for the appearance of enormous potent direct antiviral agents that may achieve successful eradication of HCV.


Lung cancer during pregnancy: A narrative review

Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths in males for decades, has recently become one of commonest causes for women too. As women delay the start of their family, the co-existence of cancer and pregnancy is increasingly observed. Nevertheless, lung cancer during pregnancy remains a rather uncommon condition with less than 70 cases published in recent years. Non-small cell lung carcinoma is the commonest type accounting for about 85% of all cases. Overall survival rates are low. Chemotherapy and/or targeted treatment have been used with poor outcomes. The disease has been also found to affect the products of conception with no short- or long-term consequences for the neonate. This article is referring to a narrative review of lung cancers diagnosed in pregnant women around the world.


Pulsed magnetic field versus ultrasound in the treatment of postnatal carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized controlled trial in the women of an Egyptian population

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of pulsed electromagnetic field versus pulsed ultrasound in treating patients with postnatal carpal tunnel syndrome. The study was a randomized, double-blinded trial. Forty postnatal female patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome were divided randomly into two equal groups. One group received pulsed electromagnetic field, with nerve and tendon gliding exercises for the wrist, three times per week for four weeks. The other group received pulsed ultrasound and the same wrist exercises. Pain level, sensory and motor distal latencies and conduction velocities of the median nerve, functional status scale and hand grip strength were assessed pre- and post-treatment. There was a significant decrease (P 0.05). In conclusion, while the symptoms were alleviated in both groups, pulsed electromagnetic field was more effective than pulsed ultrasound in treating postnatal carpal tunnel syndrome.


Selenium and Vitamin E as antioxidants in chronic hemolytic anemia: Are they deficient? A case-control study in a group of Egyptian children

Accelerated oxidative damage is one of the hallmarks in both sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassemia major (TM). A decreased antioxidant level is found in both diseases. Our study was carried out to evaluate the variation in serum levels of Selenium and Vitamin E among a group of transfusion dependant Egyptian SCD and TM patients, further more to correlate these levels with iron overload status or transfusion requirements. A case-control study was conducted at the Cairo University Pediatric Hospital to assess the serum levels of Selenium using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer and Vitamin E using commercially available ELISA Kit in transfusion dependent children, 30 with beta thalassemia and 30 with SCD in a steady state aged from 6 to 18 years, these findings were compared to 30 age/sex matched healthy controls. Our results revealed a depleted antioxidants level in the studied group of Egyptian children with TM and SCD relative to healthy controls (P


Vitamin D and the skin: Focus on a complex relationship: A review

The ‘‘sunshine’’ vitamin is a hot topic that attracted ample attention over the past decades, specially that a considerable proportion of the worldwide population are deficient in this essential nutrient. Vitamin D was primarily acknowledged for its importance in bone formation, however; increasing evidence point to its interference with the proper function of nearly every tissue in our bodies including brain, heart, muscles, immune system and skin. Thereby its deficiency has been incriminated in a long panel of diseases including cancers, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular and neurological disorders. Its involvement in the pathogenesis of different dermatological diseases is no exception and has been the subject of much research over the recent years. In the current review, we will throw light on this highly disputed vitamin that is creating a significant concern from a dermatological perspective. Furthermore, the consequences of its deficiency on the skin will be in focus.


Plague in Egypt: Disease biology, history and contemporary analysis: A minireview

Plague is a zoonotic disease with a high mortality rate in humans. Unfortunately, it is still endemic in some parts of the world. Also, natural foci of the disease are still found in some countries. Thus, there may be a risk of global plague re-emergence. This work reviews plague biology, history of major outbreaks, and threats of disease re-emergence in Egypt. Based on the suspected presence of potential natural foci in the country, the global climate change, and the threat posed by some neighbouring countries disease re-emergence in Egypt should not be excluded. The country is in need for implementation of some preventive measures.


Principal component analysis of cardiovascular risk traits in three generations cohort among Indian Punjabi population

This study not only confirmed but also extended prior work by developing a cumulative risk scale from factor scores. Till today, such a cumulative and extensive scale has not been used in any Indian studies with individuals of three generations. These findings and study highlight the importance of global approach for assessing the risk and need for studies that elucidate how these different cardiovascular risk factors interact with each other over the time to create clinical disease. The findings also added depth to the negligible amount of literature of factor analysis of cardiovascular risk in any Indian ethnic population.


A mini-review on Biginelli adducts with notable pharmacological properties

Since the disclosure of Biginelli reaction by the chemist Pietro Biginelli, functionalized 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones/thiones (DHPMs) have emerged as prototypes for the design of compounds with a broad variety of biological activities. This mini-review describes over 100 Biginelli adducts demonstrated to be promising anticancer, inhibitors of calcium channel, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. Thus, this compilation presents the most notable in vitro and in vivo results for such fascinating class of organic compounds.


A mini review on cancer of unknown primary site: A clinical puzzle for the oncologists

Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is a well recognized clinical syndrome, accounting for 3–5% of all malignancies. It is characterized as a disease with an early dissemination of metastases without a primary detected site after extensive laboratory and clinical investigations. CUP is divided into the favorable and unfavorable groups based on histopathological and clinical manifestations. Adenocarcinoma of various differentiations is the commonest histopathological subtype. Favorable groups are treated with local or systemic treatment and some of them are enjoying long-term survival. On the contrary, unfavorable groups are treated with empirical chemotherapy having usually a dismal prognosis. Gene-profiling microarray diagnosis has a high diagnostic sensitivity, but its predictive or prognostic value remains uncertain.


Hormonal-receptor positive breast cancer: IL-6 augments invasion and lymph node metastasis via stimulating cathepsin B expression

Hormonal-receptor positive (HRP) breast cancer patients with positive metastatic axillary lymph nodes are characterized by poor prognosis and increased mortality rate. The mechanisms by which cancer cells invade lymph nodes have not yet been fully explored. Several studies have shown that expression of IL-6 and the proteolytic enzyme cathepsin B (CTSB) was associated with breast cancer poor prognosis. In the present study, the effect of different concentrations of recombinant human IL-6 on the invasiveness capacity of HRP breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was tested using an in vitro invasion chamber assay. The impact of IL-6 on expression and activity of CTSB was also investigated. IL-6 treatment promoted the invasiveness potential of MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells displayed elevated CTSB expression and activity associated with loss of E-cadherin and upregulation of vimentin protein levels upon IL-6 stimulation.


Diffusive smoothing of 3D segmented medical data

This paper proposes an accurate, computationally efficient, and spectrum-free formulation of the heat diffusion smoothing on 3D shapes, represented as triangle meshes. The idea behind our approach is to apply a ðr;rÞ-degree Pade´–Chebyshev rational approximation to the solution of the heat diffusion equation. The proposed formulation is equivalent to solve r sparse, symmetric linear systems, is free of user-defined parameters, and is robust to surface discretization. We also discuss a simple criterion to select the time parameter that provides the best compromise between approximation accuracy and smoothness of the solution. Finally, our experiments on anatomical data show that the spectrum-free approach greatly reduces the computational cost and guarantees a higher approximation accuracy than previous work.


Effect of artemether on cytokine profile and egg induced pathology in murine schistosomiasis mansoni

Artemether (ART), the methylated derivative of artemisinin, is an efficacious antimalarial drug that also displays antischistosomal properties. This study was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory action of a single intramuscular dose (50 mg/kg body weight) of ART in comparison with PZQ treatment (42 days PI). ART administration was 7, 14, 21 and 45 days PI. ART effect was studied parasitologically, histopathologically and immunologically. It was found that maximum effect was reached when ART treatment interfered with 14 or 21 days old schistosomula. ART treatment 14 or 21 days PI was associated with shift from Th2 to Th1 predominancy (decrease in IL-4 and upgrading of serum IFN-c levels). In conclusion, ART is a promising drug in control of schistosomiasis mansoni due to its reductive effect on worm burden and its role in improvement of hepatic granulomatous lesions.


Possible drug–drug interaction in dogs and cats resulted from alteration in drug metabolism: A mini review

Pharmacokinetic drug–drug interactions (in particular at metabolism) may result in fatal adverse effects in some cases. This basic information, therefore, is needed for drug therapy even in veterinary medicine, as multidrug therapy is not rare in canines and felines. The aim of this review was focused on possible drug–drug interactions in dogs and cats. The interaction includes enzyme induction by phenobarbital, enzyme inhibition by ketoconazole and flu- oroquinolones, and down-regulation of enzymes by dexamethasone. A final conclusion based upon the available literatures and author’s experience is given at the end of the review.


Functionalized formazans: A review on recent progress in their pharmacological activities

This review provides an up to date information about the diverse pharmaceutical activities of formazans. The bibliography includes 97 references which have been published during the period from 1980 to 2013. The covered biological activities of the title compounds include antioxidant, anticonvulsant, therapeutic, anthelmintic, anti-tubercular, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-HIV, antimicrobial, antiparkinsonian, cardiovascular and antiproliferative activities.


Is Fibroblast growth factor 23 the leading cause of increased mortality among chronic kidney disease patients? A narrative review

The death rate among chronic kidney disease patients is the highest compared to other chronic diseases. 60% of these fatalities are cardiovascular. Cardiovascular calcifications and chronic inflammation affect almost all chronic kidney disease patients and are associated with cardio- vascular mortality. Fibroblast growth factor 23 is associated with vascular calcification. Systemic inflammation in chronic kidney disease patients is multifactorial. The role of systemic inflammation in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification was recently reappraised. Fibroblast growth factor 23 was accused as a direct stimulus of left ventricular hypertrophy, uremic inflammation, and impaired neutrophil function. This review will discuss the underlying mechanisms that underlie the link between Fibroblast growth factor 23 and increased mortality encountered among chronic kidney disease patients.


Vasculitic syndromes in hepatitis C virus: A review

Vasculitis is a remarkable presentation of the extrahepatic manifestations of HCV. According to the presence or absence of cryoglobulins it is subdivided into two main types: cryoglobulinemic vasculitis and non cryoglobulinemic vasculitis based on the attribution of vasculitis to serum cryoglobulins as a pathogenic factor. The attribution of cryoglobulinemia to HCV represents a success story in the history of immunology, microbiology, and clinical medicine. HCV can bind to and invade lymphocytes, consequently triggering an immune response through different mechanisms


Review on renal cell carcinoma and pregnancy: A challenging situation

Renal cell carcinoma is rarely diagnosed during pregnancy. Its management is a real challenge due to the sparse literature and lack of standard guidelines. In this situation, the diagnosis is often delayed as the clinical presentation might resemble other pregnancy-related disorders but it should be one of the diagnostic possibilities in women with recurrent or refractory urinary tract symptoms, renal pain, or mass that could be palpated. Diagnostic approach may include ultrasound examination and sometimes magnetic resonance imaging. If localized, surgery would be the preferred line of treatment. Other treatment modalities, end results of treatment, and review of literature of this rare association will be presented.


Numerical study for multi-strain tuberculosis (TB) model of variable-order fractional derivatives

In this paper, we presented a novel multi-strain TB model of variable-order fractional derivatives, which incorporates three strains: drug-sensitive, emerging multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR), as an extension for multi-strain TB model of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which developed in 2014 by Arino and Soliman [1]. Numerical simulations for this variable-order fractional model are the main aim of this work, where the variable-order fractional derivative is defined in the sense of Gru¨nwald–Letnikov definition. Two numerical methods are presented for this model, the standard finite difference method (SFDM) and nonstandard finite difference method (NSFDM). Numerical comparison between SFDM and NSFDM is presented. It is concluded that, NSFDM preserves the positivity of the solutions and numerically stable in large regions than SFDM.


An unusual presentation of a patient with advanced prostate cancer, massive ascites and peritoneal metastasis: Case report and literature review

This paper describe the case of a patient with prostate cancer, ascites, omental and bone metastases, an extremely rare clinical variant that warrants further investigation, and review the relevant literature.


Mesothelioma treatment: Are we on target? A review

Targeted treatment is a therapy directed at a specific molecular target close to a hallmark of cancer. The target should be measurable with a biomarker and measurement of the target should correlate with clinical outcome when targeted treatment is administered. Current clinical guidelines do not recommend targeted or biological therapy in MPM. However, since these recommendations came out, new agents have been investigated in MPM. This review updates the use of targeted and biological treatment in patients with mesothelioma.


A hybrid approach for efficient anomaly detection using metaheuristic methods

Network intrusion detection based on anomaly detection techniques has a significant role in protecting networks and systems against harmful activities. Different metaheuristic techniques have been used for anomaly detector generation. Yet, reported literature has not studied the use of the multi-start metaheuristic method for detector generation. This paper proposes a hybrid approach for anomaly detection in large scale datasets using detectors generated based on multi-start metaheuristic method and genetic algorithms. The proposed approach has taken some inspiration of negative selection-based detector generation. The evaluation of this approach is performed using NSL-KDD dataset which is a modified version of the widely used KDD CUP 99 dataset. The results show its effectiveness in generating a suitable number of detectors with an accuracy of 96.1% compared to other competitors of machine learning algorithms.


Blood gas analyses and other components involved in the acid–base metabolism of rats infected by Trypanosoma evansi

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Trypanosoma evansi infections on arterial blood gases of experimentally infected rats. Two groups with eight animals each were used; group A (uninfected) and group B (infected). Infected animals were daily monitored through blood smears that showed high parasitemia with 30 trypanosomes per field (1000•) on average, 5 days post-infection (PI). Arterial blood was collected at 5 days PI for blood gas analysis using an automated method based on dry-chemistry. Hydrogen potential (pH), partial oxygen pressure (pO2), oxygen saturation (sO2), sodium (Na), ionic calcium (Ca ionic), chlorides (Cl), partial dioxide carbon pressure (pCO2), base excess (BE), base excess in the extracellular fluid (BEecf), bicarbonate (cHCO3), potassium (K), lactate, and blood total dioxide the carbon (tCO2) were evaluated. The levels of pH, pCO2, BE, BEecf, cHCO3, and tCO2 were significantly decreased (P


Genomic profile of a patient with triple negative essential thrombocythemia, unresponsive to therapy: A case report and literature review

Clonal analysis of patients with triple negative myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) has provided evidence of additional aberrations, including epigenetic alterations. To discover such novel genetic aberrations, patients were screened through next-generation sequencing using a myeloid sequencing panel of 54 genes using a genetic analyser. Genetic variants in 28 genes, including TET2, BCOR, BCR, and ABL1 were identified in a triple negative essential thrombocythemia (ET) patient. The individual role of some of these variants in disease pathogenesis has yet to be studied. Somatic mutations in the same genes have been reported with variable frequencies in myeloid malignancies. However, no pathogenic impact of these variants could be found; therefore, long-term follow up of patients with genetic analysis of a large cohort and the use of whole genome sequencing is required to assess the effects of these variants.


Physical and cognitive consequences of fatigue: A review

Fatigue is a common worrying complaint among people performing physical activities on the basis of training or rehabilitation. An enormous amount of research articles have been published on the topic of fatigue and its effect on physical and physiological functions. The goal of this review was to focus on the effect of fatigue on muscle activity, proprioception, and cognitive functions and to summarize the results to understand the influence of fatigue on these functions. Attaining this goal provides evidence and guidance when dealing with patients and/or healthy individuals in performing maximal or submaximal exercises.


A mini review on pregnant mothers with cancer: A paradoxical coexistence

The diagnosis of cancer during pregnancy at least in the Western world is a rare phenomenon, but this might be raised into the future due to late pregnancies in the modern societies. The coexistence of pregnancy and cancer implicates numerous medical, ethical, psychological and sometimes religious issues between the mother, the family and the treating physician. Breast, cervical cancer, melanoma and lymphoma are the most common malignancies diagnosed during pregnancy. Diagnostic or therapeutic irradiation requires careful application, whereas systemic chemotherapy is not allowed during the first trimester of pregnancy due to lethal or teratogenic effects as well as to congenital malformations. In some gestational cancers, tumor cells can invade the placenta or the fetus.


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