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Effect of integrated nutrient management and bio-regulators on quality attributes of sprouting broccoli [Brassica oleracea (L.) Var. Italica Plenck] effect of Integrated Nutrient Management and Bio-regulators on Quality Attributes of Sprouting Broccoli [Brassica oleracea (L.) Var. Italica Plenck]

Effect of integrated nutrient management and bio-regulators on quality attributes of sprouting broccoli [Brassica oleracea (L.) Var. Italica Plenck] effect of Integrated Nutrient Management and Bio-regulators on Quality Attributes of Sprouting Broccoli [Brassica oleracea (L.) Var. Italica Plenck]

Effect of spacing and pruning on flowering characters of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Hisar Safeda

Effect of spacing and pruning on flowering behavior of guava was studied at Horticulture research block, CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar in both rainy and winter season during the year 2016-17. Experiment was laid out with nine different spacings i.e. 6×2 m, 6×3 m, 6× 4 m, 6×5 m, 5×2 m, 5× 3 m, 5× 4 m, 5× 5 m and 6×6 m and two pruning levels viz. no pruning and 50% shoot pruning of last season growth. Shortest duration of flowering was found with pruned and widest (6×6 m) spacings. Date of full bloom varied from 21st May 2016 to 28th May 2016 for rainy season crop and 14th Aug 2016 to 19th Aug 2016 for winter crop. Flower bud density found more in widest (6×6 m) spacing of upper canopy part of unpruned tree during rainy season, whereas maximum flower bud density was recorded in widest spacing of upper canopy part of pruned trees.

Carotenoid pigment: Significance as a natural food colourant and factors affecting its isolation

Carotenoids are the valuable bio-active constituent of many fruits and vegetables and are the most abundant group of pigments which are responsible for the yellow-orange pigmentation. Carotenoids play a potential role in human body by protecting cells and tissues from the damaging effects of free radicals and singlet oxygen. Researchers have reported that carotenoids may provide a variety of potential health-promoting functions. Therefore, these pigments have been used in the prevention or protection against human health disorders. Various natural sources have been explored in recent years with high concentration of carotenoid pigment. Factors such as moisture, particle size, temperature, enzyme, solid-solvent ratio, etc. affect the isolation efficiency, yield and stability of extracted pigment. This review highlights the effect of these factors on the isolation of carotenoids.

Biochemical studies in different cultivars of guava under eastern Uttar Pradesh condition

A study was conducted to evaluate the different guava cultivars for their biochemical composition at Post-Harvest laboratory, Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agricultural sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi during the year 2013-2014. Mature and ripe fruit of eight recognized cultivars (Lucknow–49, Allahabad Safeda, Lalit, Shweta, Apple Colour, Chittidar, Banarasi Surkha and Gorakh Bilas Pasand) were selected for investigation. The data on biochemical composition revealed that TSS ( 13.58 oBrix), Sugar (11.36%), Reducing sugar (7.28%), Pectin (2.01%) and vitamin-C content (319.60 mg/ 100 g pulp) were found to be higher in Lucknow-49 when compared to the other cultivars. Acidity (0.836%) highest in Banarasi Surkha while pH (5.89) comparatively highest in Shweta among cultivars.

Exophytic and Endophytic fungus that potential as biocontrol agents on Lasiodiplodia Theobromae caused fruit rot at sugar-apple

Fruit rot disease of sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) caused by Lesiodiplodia theobromae. The exophytic fungus found on leaves, fruits and twigs is Aspergillus sp. A. niger, Fusarium sp., Mycelia sterillia, Neurospora sp., and Rhizopus sp. whereas in the endophytes of the leaves, fruits and twigs are Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp., Neurosporas sp., and Mycelia sterillia. The diversity and dominance index of the exophistic fungi are 2,3742 and 0.8667, while the diversity and dominance index of endophytic fungi is 2.6356 and 0.6489. Ability inhibitory of antagonistic against Lesiodiplodia theobromae in vitro, from exophthalic and endophytic fungi ranged from 65.68 ± 0.82% to 88.35 ± 0.46%. The highest was obtained from Aspergillus sp. fungi of 88.35 ± 0.46% and lowest by Aspergillus sp. of 65.68 ± 0.82%. The results of in vivo inhibitory tests exophytic and endophytic fungus against the Lesiodiplodia theobromae highest obtained from Aspergillus sp. and A. niger fungi each pressed by 100%.

Wasp sting in a Jersey calf and its successful therapeutic management

A female Jersey calf around nine months was brought to veterinary dispensary, with a history of severe bilateral swelling at the vulva after coming from the grazing. On observation, found it was a wasp sting at multiple sites by the presence of erythematous spots on the vulval area. The animal was treated with NSAID, Antihistaminics, topical corticosteroids ointment and advised for cold fomentation. The animal was recovered from the initial anaphylactic reaction. After three days of therapeutic management, the animal showed uneventful recovery from the wasp bite injury.

Electrophoretic pattern of protein molecules in gut associated lymphoid tissue of prenatal goat

Gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) extracts of prenatal goat were subjected to 12.5% SDS-PAGE. The study revealed that there was less variation among different age groups of prenatal goat in same GALT extract. Ileal and thymic extract of 99 and 112 days old prenatal goat fractioned into 12 protein whereas in 50 days old foetal goat one protein in ileal and two protein in thymic extract were missing. In splenic extracts of 112 days old foetus three protein bands were missing when compared to 50 and 99 days old goat foeti. The mesenteric lymph node in 99 and 112 days old foetus was studied and its molecular weight of proteins ranged from 161.5 Kd to 16 Kd.

Effect of holding solutions on Dendrobium Orchids cv. Sonia 17 for improving the vase life of cut spikes

Effect of holding solutions on Dendrobium orchids cv. Sonia 17 for improving vase life of cut spikes was studied. In the trail using holding solutions, 8HQC (300 ppm) + 4% sucrose was best in achieving all parameters like Vase life (31.50), Physiological loss of weight (36.39%), Days for fading of first flower (18.14), Days for fading of last flower (52.38), Percent bud opening per spike (86.06%) and number of unopened and abscised buds per spike(13.88%) on Dendrobium cut spikes cv. Sonia 17 when compared to control.

Studies of some important pests on potato germplasms and their integrated management

The study was carried out during rabi season, 2007-2008 at the Adisaptagram Block Seed Farm, Department of Agriculture, Government of West Bengal. Eight germplasms were chosen for the experiment the studied on mainly soil pests viz., cutworm, mole cricket and the storage pest potato tuber moth (PTM). Kufri anand was found highest health tubers.

Biochemical characterization and correlations in Brassica Juncea genotypes

Twenty four genotypes from germplasm were taken to evaluate oil content, oil stability index, erucic acid, total glucosinolate content, total protein content and phytic acid. The assayed genotypes contained 35.54% to 40.96 % oil content, 0.79 to 1.34 oil stability index, 0.31% to 49.79 % erucic acid, 16.20 to 103.96 μmol/g total glucosinolate content of defatted seedmeal, 34.86% to 38.79% protein content and 1.77% to 2.84% phytic acid. The objective of this work is to characterize and correlate the biochemical parameters for neutraceutical study in brassica. The study confirmed the significant genetic variability in brassica kernels with respect to oil content, glucosinolates, total protein, omega ratio, oil stability index and phytic acid.

Effect of planting density and nutrient management practices on the growth parameters of maize hybrids under temperate conditions of Kashmir

The present piece of research work was carried out at the field of Dryland (Karewa) Agricultural Research Station, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir during kharif 2017 to determine the effect of planting density and nutrient management practices on the performance of maize hybrids. The experiment comprised of three factors with two maize hybrids viz. Kanchan-101 and Bio-605 as mainplot treatments and two plant geometries viz. 60×20 cm (83,000 plants ha-1 ), 60×15 cm (1,11,111 plants ha-1 ) and three nutrient management practices viz. RDF (Recommended Dose of Fertilizers), SSNM (Site Specific Nutrient Management) and FP (Farmers Practice) as sub-plot treatments replicated thrice The results of the experiment revealed that highest plant height, leaf area index was found higher with plant population of 1, 11,111 plants ha-1 However, highest functional leaves plant-1 was found higher with plant population of 83,000 plants ha-1 .

Performance of different parts of planting materials and plant geometry on oil yield and suckers production of Mentholmint (Mentha arvensis L.) during winter season

Field experiment was conducted during 2017-18 at the research farm of CSIR-CIMAP Research Centre Pantnagar to evaluate the performance of different sources of planting materials and plant geometry on oil yield and suckers production of Menthol-mint (Mentha arvensis L.) under tarai region of Uttarakhand. The studies involved three source of planting materials (P1-Whole shoot; P2-Upper portion of shoot and P3-Lower portion of shoot) and three plant geometry (S1-50×15 cm; S1-50×30 cm and S1-50×Running) were applied. The study revealed that, planted as whole shoots resulted in higher suckers yields (89.78 q/ha) as evident from higher oil yield (102.76 kg/ha). Among the planting distance, broader spacing showed higher yield of oil (95.31 kg/ha) and suckers (83.52 q/ha) in menthol-mint during experimentation.

Correlation between different morphological traits of pomegranate (Punica grantum)

Pomegranate is quite popular among consumer for its striking, sweet acidic taste and refreshing arils. Pomegranate is one of the ancient fruit crops which were originated in Iran. Total 151 pomegranate genotypes along with their hybrid parents (Bhagwa, DF, Nana) combinely 154 used for morphological characterization.

Assessment of bacteriological load of meat contact surfaces and practices of butcher shop workers

Food safety has been a matter of great concern and of public health significance in particular when the environment in which the food is handled and heavily contaminated. Foods of animal origin tend to deteriorate more rapidly and become an important vehicle of food borne infections and the consequent illnesses that lead to high mortality and economic loss. The present investigation was carried out to assess the bacteriological load of meat contact surfaces and the management practices in 36 randomly selected butcher shops in and around Guwahati city. Information on knowledge, attitude and practice of butcher shop workers were gathered by interview method using a structured questionnaire.

Disposition kinetics of Cefquinome in calves after a single intramuscular Bolus dose

Cefquinome is fourth generation cephalosporin developed exclusively for veterinary use. The present research was aimed to investigate the disposition kinetic profile of cefquinome at the dose level of 2 mg.kg-1 body weight following single intramuscular administration. Cefquinome concentrations in plasma were determined by microbiological assay technique using Kocuria rhizophila MTCC 1541 as the test organism. The plasma concentration– time profile following intramuscular administration was best described by onecompartment open model. The peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of 5.79 ± 0.35 μg.ml-1 was achieved at 1.10 ± 0.17 h (tmax).

The physicochemical properties of spray-dried papaya leaf powders

A study was conducted using laboratory spray dryer (Lab plant SD- 05) to produce spraydried papaya leaf powders using three different maltodextrin concentrations (8%, 10% & 12%) as the encapsulating agent, three feed flow rates (350 mL/h, 475 mL/h and 600 mL/h) and three different inlet temperatures (130 oC, 140 oC and 150 oC). The spray-dried papaya leaf powders were analysed for moisture content, water activity, color, pH and total flavonoid content. Results demonstrated that as inlet air temperature increased, the moisture content, water activity and total flavonoid content decreased. However, there was no significant change in the pH of the spray-dried powders for all the inlet temperatures investigated. Colormetric analyses showed that the L * , a * , b * , hue and chroma values changed with the inlet temperatures.

Forensic entomology - insects role in criminal and civil laws

Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws and the forensic entomology is the science of collecting and analyzing insect evidence to aid in forensic investigations. The review here encompassed the brief details on the criminal and civil issues related information that can be gathered through insects; clues about a crime through insect species succession; insect groups involved in forensic studies; stages of decomposition by insect activity and few case studies.

Sensory evaluation and production cost of almond milk shake

Milk shake is a frozen dairy product, prepared from milk and ice cream mixing into mixer to make it pourable and generate foam in it. It can be made more nutritious and health protector with addition of almond (Prunus dulcis) due to its rich mineral contents, zero cholesterol level, and health invigorating antioxidant, anti-cancerous and antibacterial properties against harmful pathogens. There has been no scientific study on milk shake blended with almond (Prunus dulcis) particularly from buffalo milk, which is more nutritious, and rank higher with respect to sensory appeal over cow milk.

Population dynamics and management of mango fruit fly Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

The mango fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a destructive polyphagous pest, posing threat to mango growers in Papparampakkam village of Tiruvallur District in Tamil Nadu. Population dynamics of fruit fly and yield were recorded in Papparampakkam village of Tiruvallur district during 2014-15. The results showed that trap catches was high, 839.1 fruit flies per trap during July 2014, followed by August, 2014 (563.8 fruit flies /trap). The fruit fly population was low during January, 2015 to April, 2015. Mango fruit yield was found to be high 143 q/ha in IPM plot due to the adoption of IPM strategy viz., field sanitation, soil raking and installation of methyl euginol fruit fly traps @ 25 /ha and in Non IPM plot the fruit yield was observed to be 112 q/ha. Benefit cost ratio was also found to be high in IPM plot (1:11.5) when compared to Non IPM plot.

Public health implication of intestinal parasites recovered from stool samples of food handlers and vendors in Calabar municipality

The stool sample of one hundred (100) food handlers and vendors in Calabar municipality were process for the presence of intestinal parasites. The samples were processed by direct wet mount and formol-ether sedimentation technique. Fifty three (53) food handlers were found to be infected with one or more intestinal parasites, which forty three (43) has no intestinal parasitic infection whatsoever. The most frequently identified parasite was Entamoeba at 18%, followed by Hookworun (15%), which the least is Giardia lamblia (4%). The need for hygiene by food handlers and oversight by government agencies is recommended.

Influence of seed grading and specific gravity separator on seed quality parameters of soybean var. DSb-21

An experiment was carried out at Seed Processing Unit and Seed Quality Testing Laboratory, Seed Unit, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, to study the influence of seed grading and specific gravity separator on seed quality parameters of soybean var. DSb-21. Among the three sieve size used 3.75 mm recorded higher recovery (77.60%), seed germination (85.00%) and seedling vigour index (3293) followed by 4.00 mm (75.20%, 84.33% and 3179, respectively) and 4.80 mm (66.00%, 81.67% and 3016, respectively) over other sieves used under study, indicating that Seeds obtained from specific gravity separator after processing through seed grader from below recommended sieve size - 3.75 mm processing equipment's have great impact upgrading the seed quality.

Genetic variation of stomatal traits in four tomato hybrids and their parental lines

The present study is an attempt to differentiate tomato hybrids from its parental lines using stomatal characters like stomatal density, length and width of guard cells on both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces and to assess the genetic variation for these traits. Significant differences were found for stomata characters like stomata density, length, width and area of stomata on both adaxial and abaxial surfaces of cotyledonary leaf. Hybrids recorded significantly higher stomata densities than one or both their parental lines. The differences were more conspicuous on the abaxial surface than adaxial surface. The present study was an attempt to differentiate hybrid from its parental lines and the hybrid had clear distinction from one of its parental line.

Morphological variation and Chitinase production ability of Trichoderma viride mutants

In an attempt to develop superior Trichoderma viride isolates for improvement in chitinase Enzyme productivity, induction of mutants was applied. After application of different concentrations of Ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and Hydroxyl amine (HA) treatments on T.viride mutants were obtained. Trichoderma viride was determined by its physiological state so that change in genetical conditions could alter the antagonism. Hence, the genetic modification using mutagenesis offers the potential for producing improved bioprotection is likely to enhance their biocontrol. Trichoderma viride mutants grown up to six generations to check the stability on PDA and it was found variation in mutants compared to mother culture. These mutants were tested for their chitinase productivity. TvME-4 (T4), TvMH-9 (T9) and TvME-3 (T3) mutants proved to be the highest producer of chitinase enzyme, since it produced 0.64, 0.63 and 0.62 enzyme units respectively, greater than the mother culture.

Influence of different chemical fungicides against rice brown leaf spot disease caused by Bipolaris Oryzae

Brown leaf spot of Rice, caused by Bipolaris oryzae L is one of the major rice diseases occurring in World and Nepal. A field experiment to evaluate the efficacy of different chemical fungicides against brown leaf spot of rice was conducted at the farmer’s field in Galkot municipality ward no.4. The six different fungicides that were compared with control treatment were Propaconazole, Hexaconazole, Teuboconazole, Carbendazim, Mancozeb allocated in Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) and replicated for three times. Application of propiconazole showed the lower AUDPC value (415.7) and highest grain yield (4.277 t/ha) followed by Kyoto (464.3) and SAAF (513.7) as compared to control. From this result, it was concluded that propiconazole can be used to reduce the disease severity and for higher economic yield.

Biology of diamondback moth, Plutellae Xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) of cauliflower under laboratory condition

Biological studies conducted during 2017-18 at the Post Graduation Research laboratory, Department of Entomology, Agricultural College, Naira on Diamondback moth, Plutellae xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) revealed that the egg period (incubation period) varies from 2 to 4 days (Av. 3 ± 0.5 days). The larva passed through four different instars. The first, second, third and fourth instar larva lived for 2 to 3 days (Av. 2.5 days), 2 days (Av. 1.5 days), 1 to 3 days (Av. 1.75 ± 0.25 days) and 2 to 4 days (Av. 2.75 ± 0.25 days), respectively with a total larval period of 7 to 12 days (Av. 9 days). The pre-pupal and pupal stage lasted for 1 - 2 days (Av. 1.5 ± 0.5 days) and 3 to 5 days (Av. 4.25 ± 0.25 days), respectively. The adults lived for 3 to 7 days (Av. 4.5 ± 1 days) and the entire life span under laboratory conditions varied from 13 to 22 days (Av. 17.75 ± 0.25 days).

Molecular characterization and dna fingerprinting of superior jackfruit genotypes from Kerala using SSR markers

The PCR products obtained from SSR analysis were separated on 3 percent high resolution agarose gel and the amplification patterns were observed. Eleven SSR primers which showed maximum polymorphism were selected for fingerprinting. The amplification pattern obtained with these primers were scored and depicted to develop fingerprint for each variety. Most of the amplicons were found to be shared among the genotypes. However, the pattern of sharing was different and good enough to separate out most of the varieties. Unique amplicons were observed for Sindhur, Pathamuttom varikka1, Pathamuttom varikka-2 and Chengalam varikka, which can act as specific fingerprint of these genotypes. Among the SSR primers, MAA145 showed 100% polymorphism. The PIC value for SSR primers ranged from 0.22 to 0.98 with an average of 0.79 and MI value varied from 0.66 to 2.7 with an average of 1.18.

Impact of plant growth regulators on growth, phenology and yield characters of hybrid rice

The influence of foliar applied plant growth regulators on rice crop was conducted on hybrid rice crop during kharif season’s 2015 and 2016. Application of five growth regulators each in two concentration viz., GA3 20 and 40 ppm, IAA 25 and 50 ppm, NAA 10 and 20 ppm, Triacontanol 5 and 10 ppm, Cycocel 3000 and 4000 ppm and one unsprayed control with foliar sprays at tillering and flowering stages for growth, yield parameters. The observation was recorded at different stages of crop. Higher concentration of IAA produce maximum dry biomass, increased the total leaf area plant-1 , total number of leaves at different crop growth stages, CCC delayed flowering and maturity, IAA produced higher nitrogen content in straw (%) and grain yield plant-1 (g) over control (T1).

Influence of pathogens on disease development with various crops grown in Zoba-anseba, Eritrea during 2007-2017: A report

This compilation includes various diseases observed in Zoba-Anseba, Eritrea during a decade of time from 2007-2017. The total productive area of horticultural farms in this Zoba is over 26,885 ha and it is one of the most drought-prone regions of Eritrea. Farmers grow crops such cereals, oil seeds, vegetables and fruits etc. Enormous pathogens such as fungi, bacteria and other microbes; nematodes, and intervention of migratory insect pests cause a lot of damage to these crops and finally it leads in yield loss. In spite of application of chemicals, various botanical extracts also in practice to control some of these diseases. The methodologies used in this research were surveys, field experiments, diseases assessments and isolation of pathogens. Most of the fungal pathogens were identified and recorded their occurrence from various parts of the plants, at different phenological stages and also from the soils of these crops cultivated.

Rootstock affects graft success, growth and physiological parameters of grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.)

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different rootstocks (Dogridge, 110R, 140Ru and 1103P) on growth and physiological parameters in Crimson Seedless, Manjari Naveen and Nanasaheb Purple. Growth parameters such as trunk girth, number of canes and leaf area showed the significant difference while stock:scion ratio, graft success showed non-significant difference among the cultivars. However, physiological parameters such as transpiration rate and assimilation rate showed non-significant difference in Crimson Seedless and Manjari Naveen while in Nanasaheb Purple it showed significant difference. Stomatal conductance showed the significant difference in all the three cultivars. The present study revealed that among all rootstocks, Dogridge and 1103P performed well for vegetative growth and physiological parameters.

Study of microbial count in soil under different land use systems in a mollisol

Present study was undertaken to assess the microbial count in soil under different land use systems in a Mollisol at Norman E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre, G.B. Pant University, Pantnagar. The land use systems were rice–wheat–green gram, rice–pea (vegetable)-maize, rice-potato –okra, rice–berseem + oat + mustard (fodder)-maize + cowpea (fodder), maize–wheat–cowpea, sorghum (fodder)-yellow sarson-black gram, guava + lemon, poplar + turmeric, eucalyptus + turmeric and fallow (uncultivated land). Samples were taken from 0-20cm depth and counts of microorganisms were carried out by using serial dilution pour plate method. Results indicated that soils under agroforestry based systems showed best results with respect to soil biological health followed by field crops, horticultural crops and the uncultivated land.

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