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Comparative study on the mechanical and microstructural characterisation of AA 7075 nano and hybrid nanocomposites produced by stir and squeeze casting

In this research work, a comparative evaluation on the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of aluminium based single and hybrid reinforced nanocomposites was carried out. The manufacture of a single reinforced nanocomposite was conducted with the distribution of 2 wt.% nano alumina particles (avg. particle size 30–50 nm) in the molten aluminium alloy of grade AA 7075; while the hybrid reinforced nanocomposites were produced with of 4 wt.% silicon carbide (avg. particle size 5–10 mm) and 2 wt.%, 4 wt.% nano alumina particles. Three numbers of single reinforced nanocomposites were manufactured through stir casting with reinforcements preheated to different temperatures viz. 400 C, 500 C, and 600 C. The stir cast procedure was extended to fabricate two hybrid reinforced nanocomposites with reinforcements preheated to 500 C prior to their inclusion.

Development of ionophore-based nanosphere emulsion incorporating ion-exchanger for complexometric titration of thiocyanate anion

Ionophore-based ion-exchange nanosphere emulsion was prepared and tested for the determination of thiocyanate. The emulsified nanosphere contained the cationic additive tridodecylmethyl ammonium chloride (TDMAC), the plasticizer, and the ionophore Mn(III)-salophen or Mn(III)-salen. This emulsion was used as titrating agent for thiocyanate complexation with ionophores, which could be transduced using an ion-selective electrode (ISE) as an indicator electrode for the end point detection. The method showed no need for pH control and reliable selectivity, as thiocyanate could be determined in presence of other interfering ions with high accuracy. As well, the emulsion was stable and could be used for approximately couple of weeks. The developed emulsion could be used for the determination of thiocyanate in human saliva with standard deviation

Laser researches on livestock semen and oocytes: A brief review

This article presents a brief review of the past and present literature pertinent to laser effects on sperm motility parameters, improvement of oocyte maturation and characterization of semen in livestock. The aim was, on one hand, to make the readers aware of such knowledge and on the other hand to trigger the interest of the animal reproduction scientific community in attempting some laser techniques that have not yet been fully exploited in the field of artificial insemination. With respect to the conventional methods, laser is a more sensitive and less costly technology that can be used for improving artificial insemination and embryo production system. Since 1980s, laser treatment came on the biological samples scene; its applications have continuously been developed thereafter. Exploitation of laser light by various researchers for improving the reproductive efficiency of sperm cells and the maturation rate in different livestock is demonstrated herein.

A study on the empirical distribution of the scaled Hankel matrix eigenvalues

The empirical distribution of the eigenvalues of the matrix XXT divided by its trace is evaluated, where X is a random Hankel matrix. The distribution of eigenvalues for symmetric and nonsymmetric distributions is assessed with various criteria. This yields several important properties with broad application, particularly for noise reduction and filtering in signal processing and time series analysis.

Structural mass irregularities and fiber volume influence on morphology and mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester resin in matrix composites

This paper presents the comparative results of a current study on unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) matrix composites processed by filament winding method, with cotton spun yarn of different mass irregularities and two different volume fractions. Physical and mechanical properties were measured, namely ultimate stress, stiffness, elongation%. The mechanical properties of the composites increased significantly with the increase in the fiber volume fraction in agreement with the Counto model. Mass irregularities in the yarn structure were quantitatively measured and visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mass irregularities cause marked decrease in relative strength about 25% and 33% which increases with fiber volume fraction. Ultimate stress and stiffness increases with fiber volume fraction and is always higher for yarn with less mass irregularities.

Utility of N-aryl 2-aroylhydrazonopropanehydrazonoyl chlorides as precursors for synthesis of new functionalized 1,3,4-thiadiazoles with potential antimicrobial activity

Starting from N-aryl 2-aroylhydrazono-propanehydrazonoyl chlorides, a series of new functionalized 1,3,4-thiadiazoles were prepared. The structures of the compounds prepared were confirmed by both elemental and spectral analyses as well as by alternate synthesis. The mechanisms of the studied reactions are outlined. The antimicrobial activities of the compounds prepared were screened and the results showed that most of such compounds exhibit considerable activities.

A new LPV modeling approach using PCA-based parameter set mapping to design a PSS

This paper presents a new methodology for the modeling and control of power systems based on an uncertain polytopic linear parameter-varying (LPV) approach using parameter set mapping with principle component analysis (PCA). An LPV representation of the power system dynamics is generated by linearization of its differential-algebraic equations about the transient operating points for some given specific faults containing the system nonlinear properties. The time response of the output signal in the transient state plays the role of the scheduling signal that is used to construct the LPV model.

Accurate dynamic power estimation for CMOS combinational logic circuits with real gate delay model

Dynamic power estimation is essential in designing VLSI circuits where many parameters are involved but the only circuit parameter that is related to the circuit operation is the nodes’ toggle rate. This paper discusses a deterministic and fast method to estimate the dynamic power consumption for CMOS combinational logic circuits using gate-level descriptions based on the Logic Pictures concept to obtain the circuit nodes’ toggle rate. The delay model for the logic gates is the real-delay model. To validate the results, the method is applied to several circuits and compared against exhaustive, as well as Monte Carlo, simulations. The proposed technique was shown to save up to 96% processing time compared to exhaustive simulation

New algorithms for solving third- and fifth-order two point boundary value problems based on nonsymmetric generalized Jacobi Petrov–Galerkin method

Two families of certain nonsymmetric generalized Jacobi polynomials with negative integer indexes are employed for solving third- and fifth-order two point boundary value problems governed by homogeneous and nonhomogeneous boundary conditions using a dual Petrov–Galerkin method. The idea behind our method is to use trial functions satisfying the underlying boundary conditions of the differential equations and the test functions satisfying the dual boundary conditions. The resulting linear systems from the application of our method are specially structured and they can be efficiently inverted. The use of generalized Jacobi polynomials simplify the theoretical and numerical analysis of the method and also leads to accurate and efficient numerical algorithms. The presented numerical results indicate that the proposed numerical algorithms are reliable and very efficient.

On shallow water waves in a medium with time-dependent dispersion and nonlinearity coefficients

In this paper, we studied the progression of shallow water waves relevant to the variable coefficient Korteweg–de Vries (vcKdV) equation. We investigated two kinds of cases: when the dispersion and nonlinearity coefficients are proportional, and when they are not linearly dependent. In the first case, it was shown that the progressive waves have some geometric structures as in the case of KdV equation with constant coefficients but the waves travel with time dependent speed. In the second case, the wave structure is maintained when the nonlinearity balances the dispersion. Otherwise, water waves collapse. The objectives of the study are to find a wide class of exact solutions by using the extended unified method and to present a new algorithm for treating the coupled nonlinear PDE’s.

Anthracnose of lucky bamboo Dracaena sanderiana caused by the fungus Colletotrichum dracaenophilum in Egypt

Dracaena sanderiana, of the family Liliaceae, is among the ornamental plants most frequently imported into Egypt. Typical anthracnose symptoms were observed on the stems of imported D. sanderiana samples. The pathogen was isolated, demonstrated to be pathogenic based on Koch’s rule and identified as Colletotrichum dracaenophilum. The optimum temperature for its growth ranges from 25 to 30 C, maintained for 8 days. Kemazed 50% wettable powder (WP) was the most effective fungicide against the pathogen, as no fungal growth was observed over 100 ppm. The biocontrol agents Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride followed by Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus caused the highest reduction in fungal growth. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first time that this pathogen was observed on D. sanderiana in Egypt.

Some subgroup embeddings in finite groups: A mini review

In this survey paper several subgroup embedding properties related to some types of permutability are introduced and studied.

Eubiotic effect of a dietary acidifier (potassium diformate) on the health status of cultured Oreochromis niloticus

In connection with the global demand for safe human food and the production of environmentally friendly aquaculture products, acidifiers are natural organic acids and salts that have received considerable attention as animal-feed additives. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of potassium diformate (KDF) on the growth performance and immunity of cultured Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus). Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric rations containing graded levels of KDF, including 0% (control basal diet), 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%, were fed separately to four equal fish groups (30 fish/group with an initial body weight of 53.49 ± 6.15 g) for sixty days. At the end of the experimental period, the fish groups fed on 0.2% and 0.3% KDF exhibited significant improvements in their feed intake, live weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio, with concomitant improvement of their apparent protein digestibility (p

Hybrid composites prepared from Industrial waste: Mechanical and swelling behavior

In this assessment, hybrid composites were prepared from the combination of industrial waste, as marble waste powder (MWP) with conventional fillers, carbon black (CB) as well as silica as reinforcing material, incorporated with natural rubber (NR). The properties studied were curing, mechanical and swelling behavior. Assimilation of CB as well as silica into MWP containing NR compound responded in decreasing the scorch time and cure time besides increasing in the torque. Additionally, increasing the CB and silica in their respective NR hybrid composite increases the tensile, tear, modulus, hardness, and cross-link density, but decreases the elongation and swelling coefficient. The degradation property e.g., thermal aging of the hybrid composite was also estimated. The overall behavior at 70 C aging temperature signified that the replacement of MS by CB and silica improved the aging performance.

Dynamic potential and surface morphology study of sertraline membrane sensors

New rapid, sensitive and simple electrometric method was developed to determine sertraline hydrochloride (Ser-Cl) in its pure raw material and pharmaceutical formulations. Membrane sensors based on heteropolyacids as ion associating material were prepared. Silicomolybdic acid (SMA), silicotungstic acid (STA) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) were used. The slope and limit of detection are 50.00, 60.00 and 53.24 mV/decade and 2.51, 5.62 and 4.85 lmol L1 for Ser-ST, Ser-PM and Ser-SM membrane sensors, respectively. Linear range is 0.01–10.00 for the three sensors. These new sensors were used for the potentiometric titration of Ser-Cl using sodium tetraphenylborate as titrant. The surface morphologies of the prepared membranes with and without the modifier (ion-associate) were studied using scanning and atomic force microscopes.

Effect of preheating of low shrinking resin composite on intrapulpal temperature and microtensile bond strength to dentin

The effect of preheating of the silorane-based resin composite on intrapulpal temperature (IPT) and dentin microtensile bond strength (lTBS) was evaluated. For the IPT, teeth (n = 15) were sectioned to obtain discs of 0.5 mm thickness (2 discs/tooth). The discs were divided into three groups (n = 10/group) according to the temperature of the Filtek LS silorane-based resin composite during its placement, either at room temperature (23 ± 1 C) or preheated to 54 C or 68 C using a commercial Calset device. Discs were subjected to a simulated intrapulpal pressure (IPP) and placed inside a specially constructed incubator adjusted at 37 C.

A unified classification model for modeling of seismic liquefaction potential of soil based on CPT

The evaluation of liquefaction potential of soil due to an earthquake is an important step in geosciences. This article examines the capability of Minimax Probability Machine (MPM) for the prediction of seismic liquefaction potential of soil based on the Cone Penetration Test (CPT) data. The dataset has been taken from Chi–Chi earthquake. MPM is developed based on the use of hyperplanes. It has been adopted as a classification tool. This article uses two models (MODEL I and MODEL II). MODEL I employs Cone Resistance (qc) and Cyclic Stress Ratio (CSR) as input variables. qc and Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) have been taken as inputs for MODEL II. The developed MPM gives 100% accuracy. The results show that the developed MPM can predict liquefaction potential of soil based on qc and PGA.

Benzoquinoline amines – Key intermediates for the synthesis of angular and linear dinaphthonaphthyridines

A systematic study on the condensation reaction of 2,4-dichlorobenzo[h]quinoline and naphth-1-ylamine in the presence of CuI as catalyst to functionalised mono- and di-substituted (naphthalen-1-yl)benzo[h]quinoline amines was described. Subsequently these mono- and di-substituted amines on polyphosphoric acid catalysed cyclisation reaction with aromatic/ heteroaromatic carboxylic acids led to the construction of angular and linear aromatic/ heteroaromatic substituted dinaphthonaphthyridines in good yields.

Long-term global temperature variations under total solar irradiance, cosmic rays, and volcanic activity

The effects of total solar irradiance (TSI) and volcanic activity on long-term global temperature variations during solar cycles 19–23 were studied. It was shown that a large proportion of climate variations can be explained by the mechanism of action of TSI and cosmic rays (CRs) on the state of the lower atmosphere and other meteorological parameters. The role of volcanic signals in the 11-year variations of the Earth’s climate can be expressed as several years of global temperature drop. Conversely, it was shown that the effects of solar, geophysical, and human activity on climate change interact. It was concluded that more detailed investigations of these very complicated relationships are required, in order to be able to understand issues that affect ecosystems on a global scale.

Efficient and reversible CO2 capture by amine functionalized-silica gel confined task-specific ionic liquid system

Simple, efficient and practical CO2 capture method is reported using task-specific ionic liquid (IL) supported onto the amine-functionalized silica gel. The results have been shown that both the capacity and rate of the CO2 absorption notably increase in the supported IL/molecular sieve 4 A˚ system in comparison of homogeneous IL. Additionally, it has shown that the prepared material is capable for reversible carbon dioxide absorption for at least 10 cycles without significant loss of efficiency. The presence of the amine-based IL and the surface bonded amine groups increase the capacity of CO2 absorption even in a CO2/CH4 gas mixture through the formation of ammonium carbamate onto the surface of mesoporous material.

An eco-friendly dyeing of woolen yarn by Terminalia chebula extract with evaluations of kinetic and adsorption characteristics

In the present study Terminalia chebula was used as an eco-friendly natural colorant for sustainable textile coloration of woolen yarn with primary emphasis on thermodynamic and kinetic adsorption aspects of dyeing processes. Polyphenols and ellagitannins are the main coloring components of the dye extract. Assessment of the effect of pH on dye adsorption showed an increase in adsorption capacity with decreasing pH. Effect of temperature on dye adsorption showed 80 C as optimum temperature for wool dyeing with T. chebula dye extract. Two kinetic equations, namely pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order equations, were employed to investigate the adsorption rates. Pseudo second-order model provided the best fit (R2 = 0.9908) to the experimental data. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models.

Advances in atomic physics Four decades of contribution of the Cairo University – Atomic Physics Group

In this review article, important developments in the field of atomic physics are highlighted and linked to research works the author was involved in himself as a leader of the Cairo University – Atomic Physics Group. Starting from the late 1960s – when the author first engaged in research – an overview is provided of the milestones in the fascinating landscape of atomic physics.

A new one-pot synthesis of novel hetarylazo-heterocyclic colorants and study of their solvatochromic properties

A simple synthetic strategy for synthesis of new series of hetarylazo-heterocycles is described. The effects of solvent on their electronic absorption spectra were analyzed using Kamlet–Taft equation. The results of fitting coefficients indicated that the solvatochromism of the studied compounds is mainly due to the solvent polarity rather than the solvent basicity and acidity.

A performance-oriented power transformer design methodology using multi-objective evolutionary optimization

Transformers are regarded as crucial components in power systems. Due to market globalization, power transformer manufacturers are facing an increasingly competitive environment that mandates the adoption of design strategies yielding better performance at lower costs. In this paper, a power transformer design methodology using multi-objective evolutionary optimization is proposed. Using this methodology, which is tailored to be target performance design-oriented, quick rough estimation of transformer design specifics may be inferred. Testing of the suggested approach revealed significant qualitative and quantitative match with measured design and performance values.

Assessing the global phylum level diversity within the bacterial domain: A review

not be aptly summarized in a single review. Here, we focus on one aspect of diversity (phylogenetic diversity) in one microbial domain (the Bacteria). We restrict our analysis to the highest taxonomic rank (phylum) and attempt to investigate the extent of global phylum level diversity within the Bacteria. Microbial ecology is the study of microbes in the natural environment and their interactions with each other. Investigating the nature of microorganisms residing within a specific habitat is an extremely important component of microbial ecology. Such microbial diversity surveys aim to determine the identity, physiological preferences, metabolic capabilities, and genomic features of microbial taxa within a specific ecosystem. A comprehensive review of various aspects of microbial diversity (phylogenetic, functional, and genomic diversities) in the microbial (bacterial, archaeal, and microeukaryotic) world is clearly a daunting task that could not be aptly summarized in a single review.

Mass size distributions of elemental aerosols in industrial area

Outdoor aerosol particles were characterized in industrial area of Samalut city (El-minia/Egypt) using low pressure Berner cascade impactor as an aerosol sampler. The impactor operates at 1.7 m3 /h flow rate. Seven elements were investigated including Ca, Ba, Fe, K, Cu, Mn and Pb using atomic absorption technique. The mean mass concentrations of the elements ranged from 0.42 ng/m3 (for Ba) to 89.62 ng/m3 (for Fe). The mass size distributions of the investigated elements were bi-modal log normal distribution corresponding to the accumulation and coarse modes. The enrichment factors of elements indicate that Ca, Ba, Fe, K, Cu and Mn are mainly emitted into the atmosphere from soil sources while Pb is mostly due to anthropogenic sources.

Microbial biotransformation as a tool for drug development based on natural products from mevalonic acid pathway: A review

Natural products are structurally and biologically interesting metabolites, but they have been isolated in minute amounts. The syntheses of such natural products help in obtaining them in bulk amounts. The recognition of microbial biotransformation as important manufacturing tool has increased in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In recent years, microbial transformation is increasing significantly from limited interest into highly active area in green chemistry including preparation of pharmaceutical products. This is the first review published on the usage of microbial biocatalysts for some natural product classes and natural product drugs.

A green and efficient protocol for the synthesis of dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole derivatives via a one-pot, four component reaction by grinding method

An efficient grinding protocol for the synthesis of dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole derivatives from acetylene ester, hydrazine hydrate, aryl aldehydes and malononitrile under solvent free conditions has been achieved with excellent yields. The structures of the synthesized compounds were deduced by spectroscopic techniques and the compounds were further evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

Emerging flavobacterial infections in fish: A review

Flavobacterial diseases in fish are caused by multiple bacterial species within the family Flavobacteriaceae and are responsible for devastating losses in wild and farmed fish stocks around the world. In addition to directly imposing negative economic and ecological effects, flavobacterial disease outbreaks are also notoriously difficult to prevent and control despite nearly 100 years of scientific research. The emergence of recent reports linking previously uncharacterized flavobacteria to systemic infections and mortality events in fish stocks of Europe, South America, Asia, Africa, and North America is also of major concern and has highlighted some of the difficulties surrounding the diagnosis and chemotherapeutic treat- ment of flavobacterial fish diseases. Herein, we provide a review of the literature that focuses on Flavobacterium and Chryseobacterium spp. and emphasizes those associated with fish.

Mid-infrared laser-spectroscopic sensing of chemical species

This letter reports on mid-infrared laser-based detection and analysis of chemical species. Emphasis is put on broadly tunable laser sources and sensitive detection schemes. Selected examples from our lab illustrate the performance and potential of such systems in various areas including environmental and medical sensing.

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